Report Explanation

 

Metal

Associated wear area

Typical alarm level

Iron Ring, bore, cam tappet or camshaft. Sudden increase of 50 ppm requires investigation. Maximum value about 100ppm
Chromium  Piston rings, plated bores or roller bearings  Normal working maximum 30ppm
Aluminium  Piston or bearing wear  Alarm above 20ppm
Copper Brass/bronze bushes bearings Copper /lead bearings, thrust washers, clutch packs, oil coolers Alarm above 50ppm
Lead Journal bearings, bushings, thrust washers grease, lead tin bearings (white metal) or copper/lead main and bid end bearings Alarm above 50ppm
Tin From lead/ tin or aluminium/tin bearings Alarm above 25 ppm
Nickel Found as an alloy in steel will be seen rising as a rise in iron is observed. Also roller bearings, camshafts and followers, thrust washers, valve stem/ guides
Silicon Indicates dust entry derived from sand/clay. Other possible sources are antifoam additives or silicone sealant Check air intake filter over 20ppm
Sodium Possible water ingress into oil. Caused by faulty head gasket, liner seals or perforated liner Levels above 100pp common in problem situations
Boron Used either as an additive in anti-freeze also as an extreme pressure additive Levels over 50ppm if caused by antifreeze indicate a problem
vanadium Found in surface coatings, turbine impeller blades, valves. Trace element from base oil and/or fuel
Molydenum Piston rings additives
silver Silver solder, journal bearings (rare)
Barium Additives used by oil companies
Calcium Additives used by oil companies
Phosphorus Additives used by oil companies
Magnesium Additives used by oil companies
TAN Total acid number indicates the amount of additives in oil and trends the depletion of the additives
TBN Total base number Indicates the amount of base in the oil and is a measure of the remaining base reserve
Viscosity Measured at 40°C and 100°C Alarm level 20% diff from std